In Vitro Activities of Bedaquiline and Delamanid against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Isolated in Beijing, China
ABSTRACT Due to the natural resistance of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) against multiple antibiotics, treatment of infections caused by them is often long-course and less successful. The main objective of our study was the evaluation of in vitro susceptibility of 209 isolates consisting of different NTM species against bedaquiline and delamanid. Furthermore, reference strains of 33 rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) species and 19 slowly growing mycobacterium (SGM) species were also tested. Bedaquiline exhibited strong in vitro activity against both reference strains and clinical isolates of different SGM species, as the majority of the strains demonstrated MICs far below 1 μg/ml. Bedaquiline (Bdq) also exhibited potent activity against the recruited RGM species. A total of 29 out of 33 reference RGM strains had MICs lower than 1 μg/ml. According to the MIC distributions, the tentative epidemiological cutoff (ECOFF) values, and the pharmacokinetic data, a uniform breakpoint of 2 μg/ml was temporarily proposed for NTM’s Bdq susceptibility testing. Although delamanid (Dlm) was not active against most of the tested reference strains and clinical isolates of RGM species, it exhibited highly variable antimicrobial activities against the 19 tested SGM species. Eleven species had MICs lower than 0.25 μg/ml, and 7 species had MICs greater than 32 μg/ml. Large numbers of M. kansasii (39/45) and M. gordonae (6/10) clinical isolates had MICs of ≤0.125 μg/ml. This study demonstrated that bedaquiline had potent activity against different NTM species in vitro, and delamanid had moderate activity against certain species of SGM. The data provided important insights on the possible clinical application of Bdq and Dlm to treat NTM infections.